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L i b r a r y    Y z o n e


The contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. 1. OPEN: window-graphical and system primitives
  3. 2. MORE: useful additions and improve GUI functions
  4. 3. WIND: control elements of dialogue
  5. Conclusions


Yzone - universal cross-platform library for creation of the graphic modular programs for various platform UNIX and Microsoft Windows. Yzone - the library of a broad profile, however priority in it is the scientific, component - algorithmic approach. Introducing the library Yzone, it is necessary to mark the following moments and idiosyncrasies:

  • Yzone is written on the language C (instead of C ++ as the majority of GUI-libraries), that gives a scoring on computing problems in 1.5-2 times (at exact set-up of compilers) and more effective multisequencing.
  • In Yzone cross-platforming is reached by usage of libraries of low level (Xlib for UNIX and WinAPI for Microsoft Windows) in difference, for example, from a known package wxWindows (http://www.wxwindows.org), where the cumbersome, commercial libraries (Motif and MFC accordingly) will be used.
  • In Yzone the "natural" scheme of construction of the programms will be used, the basis by which one is made by "modules" (in particular graphic windows), exchanging with a system and among themselves by "messages" (so originally was written Windows 3.x, though last time more often will be used the scheme, where the emphasis is made on "events" and their processing by separate "callback"-functions).
  • On the basis of the described above "natural" approach in Yzone the original system of modular-component programming and controls of algorithms ALGO will be built in further.
  • In Yzone incorporate a simplicity and universality, absence of superfluous parts and power of representational means, logical orderliness and compactness of the code, combination scientific and popular of the approaches to programming.
  • All listed above allows to hope, that the library Yzone will be useful to the broad audience of the programmers: from beginners to the professionals, from wishing to write the first graphic program up to the developers of composite big programmatic systems.

    1. OPEN: window-graphical and system primitives

    In Yzone the original mixed window system (system and internal windows) is designed:

  • system windows - are real windows in the terms of the system window manager, i.e. that, can be dragged by mouse on a screen, to change the sizes, to coagulate into icons etc.;
  • internal windows - graphic window modules defined in the inside - library table, in main all user's members of control (push button, scroll, etc.);
  • Such approach allows to make a system more floppy and generalpurpose, to reduce held system resources and to speed up graphic visual dialogue response.
    In case of the simple application there is one main system window, in which one the means internal windows realise user interface. In addition the system dialog boxes are possible also.

    Everyone the window-module is described unified "callback"-function, the body by which one represents one large "switch"-operator. Its labels "case" are entry points in a window procedure and respond for processing of the different messages, going at a module.
    At any program of the library, written with Yzone there should be main "callback"-function MAIN, which one is called first after start of the program.

    Thus, the standard program "Hello World" (with a padding button) will look so:

      switch (message) {
      case YCREATE:
        YInitWIND (); 
        YBigWindow (NULL, hello_proc, "Main Window", 0,0, 200,150, 0,0,0,0, 
    hello_proc (PFUNC_VAR)       
      static int hPush1;
      switch (message) {       
      case YOPEN: 
      case YDRAW:       
        YDrawRectF (0,0, WND->w,WND->h, WND->color);        
        YWnd (&hPush1, PUSH, "Hello World!", 20,20, WND->w-40,WND->h-40, 
              0,0,0,0, YColor("lime"));
      case YCLOSE:       
      case YPUSH:
        if (mes1 == hPush1)  exit(0); 
      default: ;;

    Description of some messages

      YOPEN      - the window opens; 
      YDRAW      - the window is drawn; 
      YCLOSE     - the window is closed; 
      YSETFOCUS  - the window receives 'focus'; 
      YKILLFOCUS - the window loses 'focus'; 
      YDATAMADE  - there was the change in one of 'child' contol elements; 
      YTIMER     - message from the timer (through given intervals); 
      YKEYBOARD  - keyboard key is pressed; 
      YLMOUSEDOWN   - left mouse key is pressed; 
      YLMOUSEUP     - left mouse key is released; 
      YLMOUSEMOVE   - mouse movement at a pressed left key; 
      YLMOUSEDOUBLE - double 'click' by the left mouse key; 
      YRMOUSEDOWN   - right mouse key is pressed; 
      YRMOUSEUP     - right mouse key is released; 
      YRMOUSEMOVE   - mouse movement at a pressed right key; 
      YLRMOUSEMOVE  - mouse movement at pressed left and right keys; 
      YKEYWORD0 | 
      YKEYWORD1 | 
      YKEYWORD2 |   Additional messages, dependent  
      YKEYWORD3 |   on a context of their use; 
      YKEYWORD4 | 
      YKEYWORD5 | 

    Description of some functions

      MAIN           - first pseudo-window function receiving management; 
    1) Group of the basic window functions: 
      YWndBig        - create a 'real' window (in terms of the window manager); 
      YWnd           - create 'internally' window (in terms OPEN); 
      YCloseAll      - close a window, previously by closing all child; 
      YSend          - send the message into other window or module; 
      YGoto          - send message to itself (onto other entrance point); 
      YPost          - put this message in queue; 
      YSetTimer      - start 'timer' for a window; 
      YKillTimer     - stop 'timer'; 
      YSetProcess    - start 'process' for a window; 
      YKillProcess   - stop 'process'; 
      YGetData       - receive some data from the specified window; 
      YGetFocus      - receive the identifier of a window, owning 'focus'; 
      YSetFocus      - set 'focus' for a window; 
      YUpdateWnd     - redraw  window with updated data; 
      YWndGroupBegin - 'opening bracket' for group of windows (is usual for CHECK-s); 
      YWndGroupEnd   - 'closing bracket'; 
      YDlg           - run dialog with the specified window procedure; 
      YDlgEnd        - finish dialog (to close); 
      YExit          - finish work with Y/Open; 
    2) Basic graphic items (functions of drawing): 
      YPaintPixel     - single pixel;  
      YPaintLine      - ordinary line ; 
      YPaintRectB     - rectangular (only border);  
      YPaintRectF     - rectangular (filled without border);  
      YPaintRectFB    - rectangular (filled with border);  
      YPaintPolyF     - polygon filled;  
      YPaintString    - horizontal string;  
      YPaintArcB      - arc fitting inside a rectangle;  
      YPaintArcF      - filled arc; 
    4) Other system and graphical functions: 
      YDirRead      - receive as the list contents of a directory; 
      YDirChange    - change a current directory; 
      YTimeGet      - receive system time; 
      YTimePause    - pause in milliseconds; 
      YBeep         - sound signal; 
      YRandF        - generation of pceudo-random value as 'float'; 
      YBeginGroup   - opening bracket for group of graphic functions; 
      YEndGroup     - closing bracket; 
      YImageGet     - save image of rectangular area of the screen into memory; 
      YImagePut     - draw stored image; 
      YImageFree    - destroy a stored image by clearing memory; 
      YSetXorMode   - establish a mode of drawing XOR; 
      YSetCliping   - set rectangular area with a 'cliping' mode; 
      YSetFont      - set current font; 
      YStringW      - length of line in pixels; 
      YStringH      - height of line in pixels; 
      YMouseForm    - change of a graphic mouse shape; 
      YPtInRect     - whether a point inside of a rectangular gets; 
      YColorToScale - find an index of given colour in a palette Scale; 
      YColor        - set color from standart set;
      YScale        - set color from solid pallete;

    Work with Colors

    At initializing a graphic system in Yzone there is a reserving and installation of two different colour tables:

    the standard set - widely known generally accepted color names (in the current version will be used 16 colours originally fixed behind a graphic pallet Windows VGA);

       "black"    "green"
       "silver"    "lime"
       "gray"    "olive"
       "white"    "yellow"
       "maroon"    "navy"
       "red"    "blue"
       "purple"    "teal"
       "fuchsia"    "aqua"

    solid graphic pallet - colour "unidimensional" graphic pallet formed on some law (linear, logarithmic etc.); it is convenient for using for different problems of visualization of the distributed data.

    2. MORE: useful additions and improve GUI functions

    In this section some useful functions are described. They ream capabilities of the "C" language and easy to the programmer his hard work :-) But the main improvements concern graphic functions; in them the following additions are entered:

  • scalability: before drawing on a screen, all coordinatesand the sizes (in pixels) change pursuant to a given factor of a scale; it allows to not depend on essential miscellaneous screen resolution and always to have a graphic picture of the necessary size.
  • save in the Meta-format: it is possible to set a mode, at which one all graphic primitives will be saved in some format; in further these calls it is possible to repeat in the same order.
  • printing in PostScript: to print graphic to the file PS it is possible or directly having set such mode, or from the available Meta-format.
  • Description of some functions:

    1) Imroved graphic functions (with scalling and saving to 
       Meta and PS formats): 
      YDrawLogo       - logotype library Y/Open; 
      YDrawLine       - ordinary line ; 
      YDrawRectB      - rectangular (only border); 
      YDrawRectF      - rectangular (filled without border); 
      YDrawRectFB     - rectangular (filled with border); 
      YDrawTriB       - triangle (only border); 
      YDrawTriF       - triangle (filled without border); 
      YDrawTriFB      - triangle (filled with border); 
      YDrawFourB      - quadrangle  (only border); 
      YDrawFourF      - quadrangle  (filled without border); 
      YDrawFourFB     - quadrangle  (filled with border); 
      YDrawPolyF      - polygon filled; 
      YDrawCircF      - circle filled; 
      YDrawXorLine    - line in a mode XOR; 
      YDrawScale      - palette of colors SCALE as a rectangular; 
      YDrawColmap     - rectangular color card Colmap; 
      YDrawColmapB    - too most, but with drawing border; 
      YDrawSymbol     - special graphic symbols and elements; 
      YDrawHString    - horizontal string; 
      YDrawVString    - vertical string; 
      YDrawStrings    - multilower case horizontal text; 
      YDrawRectText   - text in centre of a rectangular; 
      YDrawHStringImp - improved YDrawHString; 
      YDrawPixel      - single pixel; 
    2) Other functions:
      YStrCopy      - copying a string variable array; 
      YStrCmp       - the comparison of two lstring (returns bool value); 
      YError        - message on error and emergency end; 
      YWarning      - message on error without emergency end; 
      YInt          - reduction to a type 'int' with correct round; 
      YPutInCicl    - reduction 'int' inside of a given interval; 
      YParInit      - initialization variable from symbolical string; 
    3) Function for work with Colmap: 
      YColmapCreate    - create; 
      YColmapInit      - initialize; 
      YColmapBeginDraw - set a rectangular for a conclusion in Colmap; 
      YColmapDrawPixel - draw pixel (if gets); 
      YColmapEndDraw   - finish a mode of drawing in Colmap; 
      YColmapGet       - get pixel; 
      YColmapPut       - put pixel; 
    8) Function for work with 'Meta': 
      YMetaCreate - create; 
      YMetaInit   - initialize; 
      YMetaBegin  - begin a mode; 
      YMetaEnd    - finish a mode; 
      YMetaDrawTo - send for drawing into window; 
      YMetaToPS   - save into PostScript; 
      YMetaToScr  - draw in the specified area of the screen; 
      YMetaW      - get width; 
      YMeta_dlg   - window function of dialog 'Save_to_PS'; 

    3. WIND: control elements of dialogue

    In Yzone all control elements work standardly, except for a
    field 'DECIMAL', to operate which it is possible only by 'mouse':
        - pressing the left key - reduces meaning of a field,
        - and the pressing right - increases meaning of a field;
    Thus the unitary pressing changes meaning per unit of, and the long pressing will make continuous change, and, theme faster, than further cursor from an initial place is removed!

    Description of some functions:

      YFindFile    - run dialog 'FindFile'; 
      YMessageBox  - run dialog 'essage'; 
      YWaitBegin   - start dialog WAIT; 
      YWaitEnd     - finish dialog WAIT; 
      YWaitSend    - send the message (how many is made) into WAIT; 
      YPutWnd      - 'put' a window onto panel LAYOUT; 
      PUSH     - standard button; 
      CHECK    - element of a type 'tag' (with cross-hair lines); 
      LIST     - list of chosen elements (string constants); 
      EDIT     - field of editing string variable; 
      DECIMAL  - field for change decimal variable; 
      FLOATS   - field of editing 'float'  variable; 
      YTEXT    - not edited information textual field; 
      COLORS   - element for a choice of color; 
      RAMKA    - universal window with 'line' of control buttons; 
      SCROLL   - scrolling line (for the various purposes); 
      DITTO    - empty window procedure; 
      BOOK     - 'book' with bookmarks; 
      ABOUT    - standard panel with the information on the authors and program; 
      PROCESS  - panel with buttons of management by window 'process'; 
      LAYOUT   - panel for accommodation on it of other windows; 

    The brief description of some dialogue blocks is further given. Usually they called as system windows and are certain for performance.

    Dialogue 'Choise color'

    from above - solid graphic pallet,
    from below - standard set,
    separately are allocated black and white colour;

    For selection, simplly click the left-hand key of the mouse on the necessary colour.

    Dialogue 'Save_to_PS'

    Print, and is exacter, save to PostScript.

    Size(mm) -- panel for defining EPS image size;

  • it is possible to set in mms;
  • and it is possible to set concerning the size of a standard sheet of a paper A4;

    Dialogue 'FinfFile'

    Carries out navigation on directories of file systems and choice of a file for the subsequent work with it. Control -- with the help of standard means (button, mouse, keyboard).

    Dialogue 'Message'

    To the user some message is given out, on which it is required to answer (for example to press the button "Yes" or "No").


    You shortly have acquainted with Yzone - generalpurpose cross-platform GUI-library. From set of similar libraries Yzone distinguishes the whole set of the realised original ideas and properties. Yzone - new, dynamically developing library and, unfortunately, it is not yet free from errors and discrepancies, that hereinafter will be corrected.

    Some members of control and input boxes also are in stage of adaptation, but not waiting the terminations of this process, the users have a capability "to be picked up" to the already developed library FLTK (http://fltk.easysw.com) and to take advantage of its means GUI.

    In further, certainly, all deficiencies will be removed, and the interface is advanced in indispensable volumes. The programmer operating Yzone, will forget about existence of different platforms and padding libraries.

    Only Yzone and you!!   Good luck!!

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